Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis affects around 400,000 people in the UK. It can affect adults at any age, but most commonly starts between the ages of 40 and 60. About three times as many women as men are affected1.


Until just a few decades ago, people with rheumatoid arthritis had to resign themselves to a distressing loss of quality of life, with constant pain and an increasing loss of mobility as the disease progressed.


Chugai’s commitment to understanding the causes and mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis has contributed towards revolutionising treatment. Today, new biopharmaceutical therapies have made significant progress by effectively treating this disease and inhibiting joint damage and pain. The tools we are developing for quick diagnosis may also permit much earlier treatment in the future.


The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is still unknown, and as yet there is no cure, but our research continues and remission, where the disease goes into long-term hibernation, has become a realistic objective.


We have a rich history of medical innovation in this field and a promising future with our focus on personalised healthcare - an approach that specifically takes into account emerging knowledge about the molecular pathology of diseases and people’s individual characteristics.


What is it?

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease, where immune cells mistakenly attack and destroy healthy body tissue, because they believe the healthy tissue is a bacteria or virus. It is incurable and progressive.


Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by inflammation of the synovial membrane, which lines the joints and is essential for the protection and lubrication of the bone and helps to ensure joint mobility. Inflammation occurs because the immune cells, which are designed to protect the body, start to attack the joints. The inflammation spreads to the cartilage or bone causing pain, stiffness and swelling, and may eventually result in irreversible bone destruction.


The disease affects people of all ages and of both sexes, but women are three times more likely to be affected than men and often first symptoms develop around the age of 402.


The destruction of joints can begin shortly after the first symptoms, so early diagnosis and treatment is vital. Affected joints can be painful, hot, red, swollen and stiff, and progressive restriction of movement can occur, while other common symptoms include fatigue, morning stiffness, muscle aches and loss of appetite.

In many cases it is only after a short time that any movement of the limbs causes pain, making simple everyday tasks difficult, such as opening a jar or making tea.


Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, which, although not the case for everyone, means that it can affect the whole body and internal organs such as the lungs, heart and eyes.


In addition to progressing quickly, rheumatoid arthritis may involve both periods of remission and disease flare ups. For people with rheumatoid arthritis, disease flares can cause further joint destruction, and therefore a key aim of treatment is to tightly control the activity of the disease through regular monitoring.


The prognosis for some people with rheumatoid arthritis can be poor. The impact of the disease is shown by work ability figures: after five years 40% of people lose their jobs because of rheumatoid arthritis, three quarters of whom for reasons directly related to their arthritis3.


The final stage of rheumatoid arthritis, characterised by severely deformed wrists and ankles, has become less common due to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Chugai’s scientists are acutely aware of the daily challenges faced by people with rheumatoid arthritis and the clinicians who care for them, and because of this we strive to discover and develop even better diagnostic tools and therapies.


References

  1. Arthritis Research UK. Accessed November 2017
    http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/arthritis-information/conditions/rheumatoid-arthritis/causes.aspx
  2. National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society. Accessed November 2017
    http://www.nras.org.uk/what-is-ra
  3. Arthritis Research UK. Accessed November 2017
    http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/news/general-news/2012/july/study-highlights-rheumatoid-arthritis-toll-on-employment-and-lifespan.aspx

Watch the videos to find out more about what Rheumatoid Arthritis is and how it is treated

Speaker: Dr Andrew Östör, Consultant Rheumatologist, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?


How is Rheumatoid Arthritis treated?